|Association Management, Nov 1994
v46 n11 p38(8)
Wanted: flexible work arrangements.
(Workplace in Transition)(includes related article on Family
and Medical Leave Act and a list of resources) (Cover Story)
Diane E. Kirrane.
Abstract: The need to balance home life with work
life remains an important need for many employees in
associations. One way of satisfying this need is to implement
flexible work arrangements. Demographic, sociocultural,
medical, technological, business, economic and legal issues of
flexible work arrangements are discussed. Some options for
flexible work arrangements, child care and elder care are also
Full Text: COPYRIGHT American Society of Association
Employers want flexible employees. Employees want flexible
work arrangements. Here's the big picture, snapshots of
association programs, and a few pointers.
* NEW LAWS, TECHNOLOGIES, and staff needs are leading
associations to take another look at flexible work
* WORK--FAMILY ISSUES remain a priority, and the trend to
more tailored employment options can offer equity for all
* FLEXIBLE WORK ARRANGEMENTS are a competitive advantage
now, but several that are deemed innovative today are likely
to become as commonplace as flextime has.
Men and women. Married people. Single people. Those with
children. Those without. And those with families near and far.
Today's workers, for all their differences, have this in
common: full lives that require them to coordinate the demands
of work and home. As a result, both organizations and
individuals are blazing trails to work arrangements that
For their part, association executives are working hard to
* comply with new laws without undue disruption of or
hardships for their associations;
* satisfy the needs and wants of current employees well
enough to retain them and support or increase their
* offer options that keep their associations attractive to
These days, as Robert Levering and Milton Moskowitz note in
the 1993 update of The 100 Best Companies to Work for in
America, Americans want to work where child care needs aren't
a taboo topic and time off for self-development is in the
realm of possibility.
In other words, although implementing flexible arrangements
means spending organizational time and may require spending
money and finding staff and space, there's an institutional
upside, too. So more and more association executives and
managers find themselves joining the pathfinders in the new
environment of flexible work.
For good and ill, America is undergoing numerous changes
that affect the work force and work arrangements. Many of
these interrelated changes are
* Demographic. The baby boomers are aging. Some of them are
sandwiched between the need to care for at-home children and
no-longer-in-dependent parents. In six short years, today's
12-year-olds will come of age. These upcoming workers are
likely to expect employer accommodation not only of diversity,
but of their individuality.
* Sociocultural. No matter what one believes the definition
of family should be, the traditional Mom-at-home, Pop-at-work,
kids-at-school model is not a reality for most Americans.
Mores and Pops may be single parents: Nearly 13 million
children were living in single-parent homes in 1993, the U.S.
Census Bureau reports. Or parents may be remarried and trying
to blend families from earlier marriages. In "intact"
families, both parents may work, often of economic necessity.
Grandmother and Grandfather may work. They also may have
adult children who boomeranged back home, bringing the
grandchildren with them. Leaving the delicate subject of
parental presence aside, more than 3 million children were
growing up in their grandparents' homes in 1993.
Some people strive to add a child to their lives, while
others consider themselves "child free" but still dote on
nieces and nephews. Anyone's heartstrings and obligations may
extend to relatives--whether younger, older, or peers.
Beyond that, phrases
such as significant other and longtime companion tell that
friends and lovers may evoke family feelings, too. As a
consequence, some organizations offer limited benefits for
"spousal equivalents," including those of the same sex.
What's more, a recent report by the Economic Policy
Institute, Washington, D.C., found that for the first time,
most American workers would accept less pay or slower career
progress in trade for more personal time. Nonetheless, the
number of hours that people spend on work is rising, according
to Harvard economist Juliet Schor's book The Overworked
American: the Unexpected Decline of Leisure.
Besides tending to family ties, a working person may want
to walk the dog, write poetry, or hike mountain trails. Some
burnout-avoidance activities are once-in-a-lifetime
opportunities. As a result, the Kodak Company, Rochester, New
York, developed an innovative policy: Show how your job will
still be done to company satisfaction, and you may get leave
for a "unique personal experience."
* Technological and medical. Computer-based communication
means that work doesn't always require staff to congregate in
one place or at one time. And advances in medicine, surgery,
and knowledge about preventing bodily wear and tear are
extending Americans' lives. There even are new, sometimes
controversial, methods for having children, and having them
later in life.
* Business and economic. Downsizing has pared down many
staffs to a core whose particular knowledge and skills are
crucial. So it often saves time, money, and disruption for an
organization to retain people by offering them flexible
arrangements. Still, employers may avoid dealing with some
staffing issues by outsourcing segments of business or using
individual temporary workers.
* Legal. National Commission for Employment Policy Chair
Anthony P. Carnevale says that today's laws are based on a
traditional definition of employee, a definition that doesn't
take such changes as the growth of the contingent work force
Similarly, federal labor statistics only tell part of the
story. For example, those usually count how many people work
and for how many hours but not how many jobs each person
holds. Meanwhile waves of federal and state laws and
regulations keep employers busy reviewing organizational
documents and practices. And new legislation often raises
employees' expectations for flexibility.
The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 made pregnancy and
maternity leave less of a career threat for women. But,
naturally enough, it didn't affect parents' need to bond with
their babies. Jennifer Glass, professor of sociology and
director of a recent labor study at the University of Notre
Dame, found that, from a sample of 324 women, those who took a
relatively longer maternity leave were less likely to quit
their jobs after returning to the workplace.
The Family Support Act of 1988 (with the Job Opportunities
and Basic Skills, or JOBS, program as its main feature) was
meant to send welfare recipients to jobs, job training, or
school. But a lack of funds to subsidize child care limited
its success. As welfare reform moves back into the spotlight,
the work-home connection probably will receive more attention
When the Immigration Act of 1990 came along, it had its
good points. But it also restricted the number of foreign
workers legally allowed to enter the United States to provide
child care--and imposed tax and paperwork burdens on Americans
who wished to hire them.
In February 1993, President Clinton signed the Family and
Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which provides employees with
options for taking leave to handle certain family matters. For
example, many more employees became eligible to take unpaid
leave to care for a newborn or newly adopted child or an
ailing parent. Yet employees don't always take the options
that FMLA offers--because they can't afford its unpaid leave,
fear that they'll return to careers impaired in a company
culture that frowns on attention to family, or need or want to
care for someone (for instance, a brother or sister) to whom
the act doesn't apply.
Options and programs in practice
Countless combinations of options exist for flexible work
arrangements. For now, most references to related issues use
the term work-family. Employers' priority interest in work,
immediately followed by compassion for employees' serious and
emergency family responsibilities, is unlikely to change.
Society at large clearly has an interest in having children
brought up well. But the ongoing debate about "family values"
is evidence of substantial lack of agreement about what being
"brought up well" involves.
And partly to avoid polarizing staffers who have
school-aged children and those who don't, more general terms
(such as work-life and flexible work arrangements) are gaining
favor. In the workplace, there is concern about equity. But
equity need not mean that everyone is treated the same; it may
mean, as a manager told The New York Times, offering everyone
"access to the same, fair, consistent decision-making process,
!in which^ the outcomes may be different."
When Dana Friedman (now at the Families & Work
Institute, New York City) was with the Conference Board, New
York City, she and Wendy Gray devised a "life-cycle approach"
to employee benefits. Although many of the benefits of that
approach pertain to traditional nuclear families, it charts a
course from wellness programs to counseling on death benefits
and taxes, so no one is left out.
In another tailored approach, some organizations provide
legally mandated benefits, then set a per-employee dollar
amount to be spent on selections from a "cafeteria" of
However an organization goes about implementing flexible
arrangements, it's important to communicate priorities and to
take an approach that encompasses at least a few broad
Flextime. One such interest is flextime--a system in which
employees choose their starting and finishing times from a
range of available hours. It's become standard practice in so
many places that it no longer seems unusual. And regular
part-time or peak-period work has spread to more kinds of
businesses that want organizational flexibility.
Alternative schedules. Lately, after years of talk, a
gradual but significant move to alternative schedules is
occurring: compressed work-weeks (same number of hours, fewer
days), job sharing, voluntarily reduced work hours, and phased
retirement. But these options remain bounded by longstanding
laws, some of which haven't caught up with the trend.
Pat McGuire, staff vice president of human resources at the
Electronic Industries Association, Washington, D.C., says that
legal concerns are one reason that EIA addresses employee
requests for alternative schedules on a case-by-case basis.
"It would seem easier to arrange pay and benefits if an
employee is compensated for work per hour. But what about
exempt employees under the new arrangement?" she asks.
Moving from legality to practicality, she also asks, "What
will the employee be doing? How much of the current job is
going to get done? When? Where? In the office or at home? Does
the work require use of EIA equipment? How will this
arrangement affect member services and other external EIA
EIA needs to work with an employee to answer these and
other questions before determining whether there's a feasible
alternative schedule for satisfactory performance of a job's
vital tasks, McGuire concludes.
Flexplace. Another trend is to flexplace, a term that
encompasses working from home (some or most of the time)
without computer links to the office; telecommuting (with such
links); or spending most work time on-site with clients and
returning only occasionally to "the office," where a shared
place is reserved.
Flexplace options work best with people who are
self-starters--and finishers. Also, people who spend little or
no time at an office may need to find new avenues for
professional and social interaction--through a professional
association or office sports team, for example.
Kathy Compton, director of public affairs at the Society
for Human Resource Management, Alexandria, Virginia, says that
SHRM considers flexible arrangements on an
individual-by-individual basis. This past summer SHRM tried a
three-month pilot of telecommuting--on Tuesdays and Thursdays
by Michelle Neeley Martinez, senior editor of SHRM's
Martinez, who writes about companies implementing flexible
work options, agrees with the case-by-case approach because
her research has shown that telecommuting isn't suitable for
every job or person.
"You have to be able to set priorities and be disciplined,"
Although she has a young son, Martinez doesn't consider
telecommuting a substitute for child care in her situation.
But telecommuting does suit her early-bird nature; she starts
work when she feels most productive, even if that's at 4 a.m.
After she realized that she'd like to try telecommuting
herself, Martinez wrote a carefully thought-out proposal.
"When writing my proposal, I took the perspective of my
immediate manager and top managers, to consider what they'd be
thinking and to answer the questions running through their
heads," she says.
She noted that in the preceding six years, she had
occasionally worked from home before. Those experiences had
built her supervisor's trust because the supervisor assessed
the results: Deadlines were met and project quality stayed
Martinez's proposal also outlined how she would be
accessible to job contacts. She had her own computer
equipment; all that she asked SHRM to add was a modem and
electronic mail software.
She now uses e-mail and voice mail for work communications
as well as the telephone. To someone calling or sending her an
e-mail message, her location is not evident; her home and
office availability and means of response are the same.
During the pilot, Martinez kept a daily record from which
she later compiled a summary report. Mid-pilot, Compton said
that other employees were wishing Martinez well because even
those who don't want to telecommute hoped to see flexibility
increase. In September, SHRM deemed the pilot successful and
decided that flexibility in work options would continue.
Need for child care. Increasingly, employers are taking au
interest in employees' child care options. Some groups express
concern about employers actually supplying child care--as
opposed to acknowledging its importance and helping parents
support their own decisions and arrangements. But nearly
everyone agrees that child care is no longer "just a woman's
issue"--or of little concern in the workplace.
In their book Ozzie and Harriet Are Dead: The
Transformation of Men, Women and the American Family, to be
published by Harper/Collins, authors Caryl Rivers, of Boston
University, and Rosalind Barnett, of the Wellesley College
Center for Research on Women, report on a study funded by the
National Institute of Mental Health. The study sample was 600
Boston-area, full-time workers, most of whom were white and in
their 30s. The study found that fathers in dual-career
marriages were as stressed about child care arrangements as
mothers. It concluded that job-related problems have less
effect on a man's health than his relationship with his child
Yet between the lines of fathers' responses was the
implication that men are reluctant to speak of family-centered
concerns at work, much less to ask for flexible arrangements.
A 1992 study by the Families and Work Institute came to
similar conclusions about what it dubbed "daddy stress." And
in a related development, the U.S. Census Bureau recently
estimated that 13 percent of American children now live only
with their fathers.
And although the soaring number of single-parent homes
attracts much comment, the U.S. Department of Labor also has
reported that 75 percent of married mothers worked during part
of 1992. For a while, several reports showed data that might
have indicated that mothers' participation in the labor force
was declining. But as more statistics were tallied, the data
seemed to record a shift toward part-time work, not dropping
out. That shift may reflect a lack of flexible full-time work.
In light of all this, employers see that the availability,
affordability, and accessibility of good child care have a
bottom-line impact. Lack of quality child care leads to
employees' absenteeism, tardiness, distraction, and
stress-related health problems. Conversely, employees'
reliability, good morale, and motivation are positive results
that derive from safe, stable, developmentally sound child
Child care options. Some employers set a per-employee
dollar benefit or allow employees to set aside some pretax
income for payment for child care--whether provided by family,
friends, or nonprofit or for-profit facilities. Other
employers subsidize care by paying for it at preapproved
places: totally, at a discount, or on a sliding scale. Some
employers have on-site programs, while other organizations
simply compile a referral list of local day care facilities
that meet written standards. Because many people find it
convenient to use child care facilities near their work,
multi-employer consortiums are cropping up in areas that have
a concentration of offices.
The American Psychological Association, on Washington,
D.C.'s Capitol Hill, is one of four partners in a consortium
agreement: APA, two government agencies (the Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission and the General Services
Administration), and Bright Horizons, Inc., a child care
company headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Holly Holstrom, APA's director of office support services,
says that in 1990 the association created a task force to
investigate child care options for employees. An informal
questionnaire revealed that about 20 employees were interested
in child care services, but not necessarily immediately. The
task force launched a study, came to the realization that the
association's staff base was too small to support building an
APA-only child care center, and began to explore consortium
arrangements. In 1992 task force chair Tiffany Field, director
of the Touch Research Institute at the University of Miami's
Medical School, contacted Patricia Kinney, deputy director of
GSA's Office of Child Care Development Programs. In turn,
Kinney knew that FERC, which had a child care center, was
considering new arrangements--including a switch to the Bright
Horizons program and the possibility of taking on partners.
FERC is very near APA. But even more important to APA is
Bright Horizons's strong curriculum of early childhood
development based on expert advice from an advisory board that
includes Head Start pioneer and psychologist Edward Ziglar and
Harvard child development researcher Jerome Kagan. The program
is staged and the consortium center has separate plans for
infants, young toddlers, older toddlers, and preschoolers. The
staff-per-child ratio is 1-4 through the older toddler stage
and 1-10 for preschoolers. Throughout the country, Bright
Horizons centers are accredited or are awaiting accreditation
through the National Association for the Education of Young
Children, Washington, D.C. Teachers at the consortium center
must have bachelor's degrees, experience in day care, and
"love for children." A policy of in-house promotion helps to
retain center staff and provide children with a stable
environment of caregivers.
APA purchased priority rights to 10 program spaces for
three years and also bought three backup spaces for use by
employees whose other child care arrangements fall through
temporarily. Holstrom says that trying the backup slots also
lets employees and their children see how they like the
center. Employees pay monthly tuition based on the age of each
child in the program, but subsidies are available for families
who can't afford the regular fee.
APA Chief Executive Officer Raymond D. Fowler was on hand
for the center's July 1993 inauguration. A year later, 42
children were enrolled and plans were under way to add to the
Holstrom says the whole APA staff' is seeing children
around the neighborhood more often.
"It's neat to see co-workers having lunch with their kids
during the day or taking them out for a stroll. We also do
center tours and have open houses to keep employees aware of
the center as an option," she notes.
Elsewhere, child care for preschoolers or for young
students during after-school hours may be supplemented by
other initiatives. A few companies--among them Hewlett
Packard, Santa Clara, California--work with school boards to
coordinate plans in order to have schools near proposed work
EIder care. Another trend is employer involvement in
developing options for elder care. The needs of employees'
elderly relatives vary somewhat more than the developmental
needs of children. Some older people just need to get out of
an empty house--to avoid loneliness and the feeling of a lack
of purpose. They enjoy programs that have social activities
(such as day trips, dances, and card games) or
self-development activities (such as exercise, education, or
creative arts and crafts). Other older people need more
physical assistance and attention to their health. At this
point, relatively few employers offer on-site elder care, but
many provide referrals to community resources and offer some
form of financial support for elder care services.
Still rare, but enthusiastically hailed where in practice,
is intergenerational care that offers same-site child care and
elder care, with activities to bring the old and young
together for part of each day.
Of course, other, more familiar practices and benefits
continue to contribute to flexibility, and strengthen family
life: employee assistance program referrals, seminars, and
counseling; assistance and subsidies for work-related moves;
and leaves and subsidies for education of employees and their
families. Looking ahead, as more American workplaces and homes
become networked electronically, it is to be expected that
some of today's new-fangled arrangements will become familiar,
The Benefits of Being Flexible
Associations that have adopted flexible ways to work are
finding that these arrangements
* are good recruiting tools;
* help reduce absenteeism and turnover;
* support or increase productivity by easing employees'
worries, saving them time, or helping them sustain a higher
level of effort;
* boost morale because the employer acknowledges that
employees have commitments and concerns outside of work;
* may improve customer service (for instance, by offering
more means or hours of communicating with staff--or better
problem-solving from the "two heads are better than one"
approach of job sharing); and
* enhance public image.
Complying With the FMLA
August 5, 1994, marked the one-year anniversary of the
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and while complying may
be frustrating in some ways--75 percent of human resource
professionals responding to a recent Society for Human
Resource Management survey said the law creates daily
administrative problems--it is mandatory. The law generally
applies to organizations with 50 employees.
Unpaid leave. The FMLA says that if someone has worked for
the same organization for 12 months (and at least 1,250 hours
in the past year), that person is entitled to 12 weeks of
unpaid leave in a 12-month period for the
* birth of a child or care of a child after birth or
* care of a seriously ill spouse, child, parent, or foster
* hospital care or continuing medical treatment of a
serious personal illness.
When employees take FMLA leave, the employer is to maintain
their benefits and to return them to the same jobs or to those
with the same pay, status, and benefits.
An employee may use paid vacation or sick leave as part of
the leave, but the 12-week limit still applies. Whenever
possible, an employee is to give 30 days' notice of leave, to
estimate when he or she will return, and to keep in touch with
the employer. Intermittent leave will be granted if medically
necessary; otherwise, it's granted if the employer and
employee agree. Again, the 12-week total limitation applies.
Paperwork. Meanwhile, there's paperwork. An employer must
post a notice to explain employees' rights under the FMLA and
tell how to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of
Labor's Wage and Hour Division. An FMLA leave statement is to
be included in the organization's employee handbook if there
is one. If not, the employer is to distribute an FMLA policy.
A copy of the FMLA and related regulations, a sample
employee notice, a sample medical certification form, and
other information are available from the U.S. Department of
Labor's Wage & Hour Division, Room 53516, Frances Perkins
Building, 200 Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, DC 20210.
Telephone: (202) 219-8727. Caution: Although these materials
provide a useful starting point, it is risky to adopt any FMLA
sample as is.
Policy review. State laws or employee agreements may seem
to conflict with certain FMLA provisions. So before issuing
FMLA documents, an organization needs to review its own
policies and documents covering such matters as leaves of
absence, attendance, scheduling, life and disability
insurance, and pensions. To resolve apparent conflicts, it may
be prudent to get advice from an attorney familiar with the
FMLA, its relationship to state law, and its likely impact on
human resource policies. Other changes usually can be handled
in-house--for example, revision of time reporting, payroll,
and administrative systems to account for new practices such
as intermittent leave.
Preparation. Managers need to be well-versed about FMLA
requirements and options for redistributing work when an
employee takes leave. In the February issue of the magazine
Across the Board, career adviser Marilyn Moats Kennedy
recommended that managers remind co-workers that FMLA leave is
covered by law--and talk in terms of organizational needs,
rather than trying to elicit sympathy for the person on leave.
If possible, Kennedy said, use the leave taker's unpaid salary
to hire temporary help, even for professional posts. Finally,
she urged managers to work out in advance how leave takers
will stay in touch and phase back into work.
Compliance. Earlier this year, the San Francisco office of
William M. Mercer, Inc., and the University of California at
Berkeley published results of a survey of Family and Medical
Leave Act compliance in their state. In the 299 employer
organizations that responded, the most common actions taken
were discussion of how the FMLA applies to the organization,
examination of related programs and policies for consistency,
posting of employee's FMLA rights, and preparation of a
written family leave policy.
Although some respondents extended benefits beyond FMLA
requirements, others did not meet its mandates. For example,
the survey found that 8.6 percent of respondents did not
guarantee jobs after leave; some let managers decide whether
employees would get their jobs back. About 5 percent offered
less than the mandated 12 weeks of leave.
The actions that respondents were least likely to have
taken were to budget for unanticipated leave costs or to
develop an appeal procedure--although, from a management
perspective, an appeal procedure is a desirable first step for
Getting Off to a Good Start
To get off to a good start in developing flexible work
arrangements, plan to
* Develop awareness of work-personal-life issues as
business issues with bottom-line implications.
* Manage fears and expectations. Help middle managers to
see the advantages of flexible arrangements and explain how
managers can monitor work results in the new situation.
Develop clear measurable or observable performance standards;
abandon "face time" as a standard. Let employees know that
management has concern for their personal needs but will
maintain business interests as the first priority. Point out
the vital need to meet customer needs and demands.
* Assess current work-home issues affecting the association
and its staff. If feasible, also assess the future needs of
the work force and labor pool. Defuse concerns about invasion
of privacy. Structure a needs assessment survey--for example,
as a checklist that doesn't require respondents to show their
handwriting or give their names. Or, within guidelines related
to business needs, allow staffers to propose flexible
arrangements for themselves.
* Assign responsibility for reviewing association documents
and procedures to keep them in line with related law. Assign
someone to keep up with the literature on flexible work
options and track down outside resources that might support
* Review possible initiatives.
* Phase in selected initiatives through short-term pilot
programs or support of off-site programs.
* Inform staff of flexible options. Train managers and
employees as necessary. Managers may need to learn about new
thinking on employee motivation and performance standards.
Employees may need to be cross-trained for greater flexibility
* Integrate concern for flexibility into the association's
strategic thinking by developing ongoing means for
communicating both work expectations and flexibility of
options; tracking issues, options, and results, and then
adjusting as necessary; and building organizational resources
(for example, by making contacts for employee assistance
program referrals or building a file on training resources
related to topics such as family-related benefits or managing
Tap These Resources
Many newsstand periodicals--from The Wall Street Journal
and Fortune to Working Mother--cover flexibility and work-life
issues and practices. In addition, numerous organizations
offer publications and training about flexible work
arrangements. Among the resources:
* Bureau of National Affairs 1231 25th St., N.W.
Washington, DC 20037 (800) 372-1033
Special report series on work and family
* Catalyst 250 Park Ave., S. New York, NY 10003-1459 (212)
Publications such as Child Care in Corporate America:
Quality Indicators and Model Programs, advisory services
* The Conference Board 845 Third Ave. New York, NY
10022-6601 (212) 759-0900; fax (212) 980-7014
Work-Family Roundtable (advisory panel); reports such as
Linking Work-Family Issues to the Bottom Line, Strategies for
Promoting a Work-Family Agenda, Emerging Role of the
Work-Family Manager, and Job Sharing; also books such as
Creating a Flexible Workplace
* Families & Work Institute 330 Seventh Ave., 14th
floor New York, NY 10001 (212) 465-2044
Publications such as The Corporate Guide to Work-Family
Programs and The Study of Children in family Child Care and
Relative Child Care; seminars and management training
* Managing Work and Family, Inc. 912 Crain St. Chicago, IL
60202 (708) 864-0916
Books, videos, needs assessment, and training
* National Council on the Aging National Institute on Adult
Day Care 409 Third St., S.W. Washington, DC 20024 (202)
Policy review of eider care in the workplace, a fact sheet
about costs and charges for adult day care, and a brochure
called Why Adult Day Care
* New Ways to Work 785 Market St., Suite 950 San Francisco,
CA 94103-2016 (415) 995-9860; fax (415) 995-9867
Print publications, information contained on computer
disks, and management training on flextime, telecommuting, job
sharing, compressed work weeks, and phased retirement
* Society for Human Resource Management 606 N. Washington
St. Alexandria, VA 22314 (703) 548-3440; fax (703) 836-0367
Publications such as Family and Medical Leave Act
Compliance Guide, Creating a Flexible Workplace, and The
Employer's Guide to Childcare
* U.S. Department of Labor Women's Bureau--Work and Family
Clearinghouse 200 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20210
"Work and Family Resource Kit"; Elder care locator (from
National Association of Area Agencies on Aging); Elder care
* Work/Family Directions 930 Commonwealth Ave., W. Boston,
MA 02215 (617) 278-4000; fax (617) 566-2806
Seminars and advisory and referral services
Diane E. Kirrane is a Washington, D.C.-based policy
consultant and business writer.