Ethnic Diveristy (cont)


Fear of Foreigners

Fear of foreigners is common. The fear of foreigners is called
xenophobia (fear of strangers)
Xenophobics fear:
Loss of jobs
Lower wages
Drain on social services
Loss of domestic culture
social drain
Facts on Immigrant Labor
There is widespread analytical agreement among the OECD countries (the OECD, Australia, France, Canada, Germany and U.S. have all conducted research) that, at the aggregate level, immigration benefits employers, consumers and a country's economic position and does NOT adversely affect whether the job opportunities available or the wages of domestic workers in complementary jobs.

Tight Labor Markets

  • Industrialized nations need migrants because of high dependency ratios
  • many migrants work in jobs that are "dangerous, difficult, and dirty" -- jobs nationals do not want
  • Immigrants provide much of the domestic help that enables women to re-enter the workforce
  • Immigrants are generally more mobile and flexible
Education
  • altogether immigrants have only a year less education
  • a higher percent of immigrants have a bachelor's or post-graduate degree
  • immigrants are increasingly a large part of engineering and science professionals
  • first and second generation immigrant children do unusually well in school. They win an astonishingly high proportion of scholastic prizes.
  • the educational capital immigrants brought to the U.S. in 1990 alone was estimated to be $640 million

Cost/Benefit
  • The NPV of immigrants entering the U.S. in the 1990s was over $500 billion
  • The total GNP is $200 billion higher each year in the U.S. because of immigrants
  • the jobs immigrants create with their purchasing power, outweighs the domestic jobs lost to immigrants

Problem in calculation costs-

most models count immigrant children as costs but then fail to count the taxes they pay in later years as benefits
costs are usually calculated in years when there is an economic downturn (ethnocentrism rises in these years)
long-term temporary migrants (often earning high salaries) are not counted in immigration statistics

Multi-cultural or Ethnic Marketing
By 2010, whites will account for only about 9% of the world's population (compared to 17% in 1997)--making them the world's SMALLEST ethnic minority. The need to understand different cultures, even within our own countries, has never been greater. Marketing to different national or ethnic groups is called target marketing and it is BIG business. In the U.S., for example, census figures indicate that 25 percent of all Americans belong to some recognized minority groups. By the year 2050 that figure is projected tol rise to 50 %. In the U.S., Ethnic markets represent disposable income of more than $4000 billion for African-Americans, $235 billion for Hispanics, and $150 billion for Asian-Americans.